Gary Biglaiser, Jacques Crémer, and Gergely Dobos, Heterogenous switching costs, International Journal of Industrial Organization, vol. 47, July 2016, pp. 62–87.


We consider a simple two period model where consumers have different switching costs. Before the market opens, there was an incumbent who sold to all consumers. We identify the equilibrium both with Stackelberg and Bertrand competition and show how the presence of low switching cost consumers benefits the incumbent, despite the fact that it never sells to any of them.


switching; cost;

JEL codes

  • D43: Oligopoly and Other Forms of Market Imperfection
  • L13: Oligopoly and Other Imperfect Markets